Probably one of the most important figures and theorists, when it comes to the aspects of play, Roger Caillois in his book Man Play and Games, devised and outlined a stringent set of categories that games, in any form, tend to fall into, those being;
- Agon – Outlines clearly, that a game has a competitive aspect. i.e. multiplayer within video games, it promotes a competitive element because it pits player vs player in an attempt to see who is best.
- Illinx – Is the way in which the game purposefully disorientates the player to engage them in a scenario. i.e. Grand Theft Auto, when the protagonist is intoxicated, they will move accordingly and the screen will give off a disorientating effect to the player.
- Mimicry – Is the way in which the player controls the player character, as they take on a role or copy the movements the player want them to.
- Alea – Is the way in which chance and/or luck is incorporated into games, be it Poker or any game that presents an element of randomness to it.
Caillois, R. 1961. Man, play, and games. [New York]: Free Press of Glencoe.